LOTRED-SA - Long-Term climate REconstruction and Dynamics of South America
Regional high-resolution multi-proxy climate reconstructions for the last ca. 1000 years are a priority area of future research within IGBP-PAGES (Wanner 2005). While considerable progress has been made on the northern hemisphere (Pauling et al. 2006), adequate data sets and reconstructions are missing for the southern hemisphere.
Regional reconstructions are particularly important since regional climate change and extremes exhibit much larger amplitudes than hemispheric and global reconstructions. Monthly to seasonal temperature reconstruction for Europe since 1500 AD (e.g., Luterbacher et al. 2004; Xoplaki et al. 2005) and the drought reconstruction for the western US (Cook et al. 2004) have set new standards for regional scales. Similar studies are missing for other regions of the world.
This LOTRED- SA initiative is conceived as a collaborative long-term effort that seeks to:
1. Collate the large number of disperse already existing and new multi-proxy paleoclimate data sets (documentary data, early instrumental data and natural proxies) for the last ca. 1000 - 2000 years available for South America, and
2. Use the Mann et al. (1998), Luterbacher et al. (2004) and Moberg et al. (2005) methodologies to work towards a regional reconstruction at different temporal and spatial resolution for southern South America.
Background and Working Group Proposal
Read LOTRED-SA's initial proposal here.
This initiative seeks to involve research groups from different countries working within a common frame for to achieve our scientific goals:
1. to collate, maintain and share a common, state-of-the-art database with the available multi-proxy datasets.
2. to produce, as a collective of authors, a series of research results and papers that exceed the capacity of us as individuals. Results may include a gridded data set for temperature and precipitation reconstructions, the diagnosis of solar and volcanic forcing, and the analysis of extreme events, among others.
3. compare the multi-proxy reconstruction with results from GCM runs for the last 1000 - 2000 years or selected windows of interest.
You can read more about contributing to the database under the Metadatabase field.
A set of expected results (“What can be done with the database?”) is given with the example from the European database. This is indeed a visionary goal and will depend on the data available.
LOTRED-SA is a bottom-up initiative and seeks to involve as many individual researchers and groups as possible. All the types of archives are represented by individuals in the “Coordinating Committee”
Ricardo Villalba, IANIGLA, Mendoza, Argentina
Martin Grosjean, NCCR Climate, University of Bern, Switzerland
Scientific Steering Committee
Ignacio Mundo, IANIGLA-CONICET, Mendoza, Argentina
Mariano Masiokas, IANIGLA-CONICET, Mendoza, Argentina
Duncan Christie, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile
Raphael Neukom, University of Bern, Switzerland
Andres Rivera, CECS, Valdivia, Chile
Antonio Lara, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile
María del Rosario Prieto, IANIGLA-CRICYT, Mendoza, Argentina
Mariano Morales, IANIGLA-CONICET, Mendoza, Argentina
Coordinating Committee (non-exclusive)
Documentary data, early instrumental data:
Alain Gioda, IRD France, Archival Climatic History Survey (ARCHISS)
Pepe Boninsegna, IANIGLA-CRYCIT, Mendoza, Argentina
Jaime Argollo, Universidad San Andrei, Bolivia
Lake and marine sediments:
Eduardo Piovano, CIGES, Universidad de Cordoba, Argentina
Françoise Vimeux, IRD Great Ice/LSCE, Gif-sur-Yvette, France
Margit Schwikowski, University of Bern and PSI, Switzerland
Mariano Masiokas, IANIGLA-CRICYT, Mendoza, Argentina
Antoine Rabatel, IRD Great Ice, Grenoble, France
Jürg Luterbacher, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Germany
Climate 20th century:
Mathias Vuille, University of Albany, USA
Rosa Compagnucci, University of Buenos Aires, Argentina
Christoph Raible, KUP, University of Bern
Anne Coudrain, Great Ice Project, France
- LOTRED-SA 3rd symposium: Climate change and human impact in Central and South America over the last 2000 years: Observations and models
Medellín, Colombia // 2014-07-09
- LOTRED-SA pre-congress training course for young scientists
Medellín, Colombia // 2014-07-07
- 2nd International Symposium Reconstructing Climate Variations in South America and the Antarctic Peninsula over the last 2000 years
Centro de Estudios Cientificos (CECS), Valdivia, Chile // 2010-10-27
- South American Climatology and Quantitative High-Resolution Climate Reconstructions in Paleoecology course
Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile // 2010-10-23
- International Symposium: Reconstructing Past Regional Climate Variations in South America over the late Holocene (LOTRED-SA)
Malargüe, Argentina // 2006-10-04
Special issue articles
The LOTRED-SA metadatabase gives an overview of the proxy-network in southern South America with focus on the last 1000 years. It provides meta-information of proxy sites of different natural and human archives that might be suitable for climate reconstructions of high temporal resolution.
Three good reasons to contribute your data set
1. It is increasingly within the policy (or even a pre-condition) of funding agencies that supported projects make their results and data sets available. You benefit from co-authorship of important contributions, your work is cited, and your data is used. For example "The IGBP places high priority on establishment, maintenance, validation, description, accessibility, and distribution of high-quality, long-term global data sets, including the synthesis or generation of new global data sets," and "Full and open sharing of the full suite of global data sets, and other data sets needed for global change studies, is the primary objective of the IGBP-DIS" (IGBP Report No. 12).
2. The coordinators of LOTRED-SA and IGBP-PAGES officials may write letters of support for proposals, or even endorse projects for those who contribute.
3. The results of LOTRED are expected to reach a wide recognition, and it may be helpful for you and your research group if your data sets are included. Funding agencies might be interested in evaluating who contributed and which type of archives serves best for climate reconstructions.
An example: Pauling et al. 2003 (GRL) concluded that lake sediments are not among the useful proxies to reconstruct climate in Europe. The reason is simple: only one time series was made available for the reconstruction.
We are aware that contributing with sets of raw and original data to a data base may be problematic in some cases, particularly if the data set is not yet fully and extensively published. This sensitive issue will be handled with utmost care. The data will be physically stored with the coordinators Ricardo Villalba and Martin Grosjean. They guarantee that no dataset will leave unless explicitly authorized by the provider. Publication of work that arises from the data base will ONLY include metadata, where the individual data set and the original data are not visible.
During the course of the initiative, a plan for research and investigation, and related publications will be established. Important publications will feature the lead author (who performed the analysis and produced the metadata) and the collective of contributors to LOTRED-SA.
You will have the option to protect your data or to make it accessible preferably on the NOAA's World Data Center for Paleoclimatology website.
IGBP's Rules and Regulations for Privacy apply.
What kind of proxy data are welcome?
All types of documentary data, early instrumental records and well dated, annual or decadal-resolution natural proxies such as tree rings, corals, lake sediments, ice cores and glaciers etc that are related to (or thought to be related to) any climate parameter or weather phenomena are welcome.
Data quality requirements
- The proxy data series should have a minimum length of 100 to 150 years
- Updated data series are ideal
- Long continuous series are most valuable. However, also records over a few years or discrete observations are highly valuable (mostly for verification purposes)
- Series with many data points (high resolution: annual, decadal) are most valuable
- Please provide RAW DATA (not filtered, not smoothed, not treated)
- Time series should have NO missing values within the 20th century (calibration period)
- Proxies which do not have data in the 20th century calibration period: Are there any possibilities to infer the climatic signal based on historical instrumental time series or other proxies?
- Even though the focus is on southern South America, data series from entire South America and surrounding areas are welcome.
For questions regarding the data or how to contribute new data, contact Raphael Neukom.
Website on Andean glaciers
The “Glaciares de Argentina” website is a non-profit, purely educational initiative designed for discussion and dissemination of everything related to Andean glaciers in Argentina. The idea is to include news, specialists’ notes, information on the glaciers that have been studied so far in the country, interesting links, research projects, etc., and to keep extending and improving the website with material from new study areas, ongoing or concluded investigations, etc.
The site was created and is maintained by personnel of IANIGLA, Mendoza and is hosted at the National University of Cuyo web servers. For now, the contents are only in Spanish because the main purpose of the site is to reach a broad audience in Argentina and neighboring countries, where English is not usually read or spoken fluently. Comments or suggestions are always welcome and should be addressed to the moderator of the site, Mariano Masiokas.