The 2k Network
Research on the last 1 to 2 ka has resulted in several multi-proxy reconstructions of global or hemispheric temperature (e.g., Rutherford et al., 2005; Mann et al., 2007; 2008). In addition, first attempts have been made to reconstruct other climatic parameters, at a high spatial and temporal resolution (e.g., Luterbacher et al., 2004).
Despite significant progress over the last few decades, we still do not sufficiently understand the precise sequence of changes related to regional climate forcings, internal variability, system feedbacks, and the responses of surface climate, land-cover, and bio- and hydro-sphere. Furthermore, at the decadal-to-centennial timescale we do not understand how sensitive the climate is to changes in solar activity, frequency of volcanic eruptions, greenhouse gas and aerosol concentration, and land cover.
It is understood that, at the continental- to regional-scale, climate is strongly modulated by internal variability, e.g., the NAO and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) in the Atlantic area; and the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Pacific Decadal Oscillations (PDO) in the Pacific area. However, the interactions of key processes at different temporal and spatial scales are not fully understood (Bengtsson et al., 2006).
Further, many parts of the globe lack adequate paleorecords for comparison with model simulations, and high-resolution (spatially and temporally) instrumental datasets are sparse. This is particularly true for the southern hemisphere and the tropics.
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1. What did the main patterns and modes of climate variability on sub-decadal to orbital timescales look and operate like?
2. How do climate variability and extreme events relate to the important primary forcing factors, namely orbital, solar and volcanic?
3. What feedbacks operated to modulate the climate response?
2k Network meetings
- LOTRED-SA 3rd symposium: Climate change and human impact in Central and South America over the last 2000 years: Observations and models
Medellín, Colombia // 2014-07-09
- LOTRED-SA pre-congress training course for young scientists
Medellín, Colombia // 2014-07-07
- PAGES Aus2k Working Group workshop
Melbourne, Australia // 2014-06-26
- Workshop: North America 2k - Phase 2 (Powell Center Working Group)
Fort Collins, USA // 2014-06-23
- 3rd Asia2k Workshop
Beijing, China // 2014-05-26
- European Geosciences Union (EGU) General Assembly 2014
Vienna, Austria // 2014-04-27
- Advances in Climate Field Reconstructions
Woods Hole, USA // 2014-04-15
- AGU Fall Meeting 2013
San Francisco, USA // 2013-12-09
- Arctic2k Working Group: Reconstructing precipitation in the Arctic for the last 2000 years
San Francisco, USA // 2013-12-08
- Joint workshop with PAGES 2k network & PAST2k-PMIP: Integrated analyses of reconstructions and multi-model simulations for the past two millennia
Madrid, Spain // 2013-11-04
- PAGES Arctic2k Meeting
Vienna, Austra // 2013-04-11
- Euro-Med2k workshop
Reading, UK // 2013-03-25
- PAGES 2k Network Meeting
Goa, India // 2013-02-12
- AGU Fall Meeting 2012
San Francisco, USA // 2012-12-03
- PAGES Euro-Med2k Working Group Workshop 2012
Hamburg, Germany // 2012-05-21
- PAGES 2k Network Writing Workshop
Bern, Switzerland // 2012-05-14
- European Geosciences Union (EGU) General Assembly 2012
Vienna, Austria // 2012-04-22
- 2nd Asia2k Workshop
Chiang Mai, Thailand // 2012-01-09
- AGU Fall Meeting 2011
San Francisco, USA // 2011-12-05
- Arctic2k Workshop: Actual Spatiotemporal Reconstruction and Plans for Publication
Helsinki, Finland // 2011-11-15
- North American Dendroclimatic Data: Compilation, Characterization, and Spatiotemporal Analysis
Tucson, Arizona, USA // 2011-10-30
- PAGES 2nd Regional 2k Network Meeting
PAGES International Project Office, Bern, Switzerland // 2011-07-28
- Africa 2k Workshop
Bern, Switzerland // 2011-07-23
- 1st Antarctica2k Workshop
University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland // 2011-07-19
- NAM2k Meeting: Advancing North American Climate Field Reconstructions
Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona, USA // 2011-05-08
- 2nd Australasia 2k Workshop
University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia // 2011-04-27
- Workshop on Bayesian Hierarchical Models (BHMs) for Climate Field Reconstruction (CFR)
Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, New York, USA // 2011-02-08
- Arctic 2k Workshop
San Francisco, USA // 2010-12-11
- EURO-MED 2k meeting: Review of current knowledge, available data covering the past 2k and plans for multiproxy integration
University of Alcala de Henares, Madrid, Spain // 2010-11-22
- Symposium-The Medieval Warm Period Redux: Where And When Was It Warm?
FLAD (Luso-American Foundation), Lisbon, Portugal // 2010-09-22
- 1st Asia2k Workshop
Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan // 2010-08-26
- Australasia 2k Workshop: Towards data synthesis
School of Earth Sciences, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia // 2010-05-31
- Africa 2k Regional workshop
Ghent, Belgium // 2010-05-11
- PAGES Regional 2k Network Meeting
Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA // 2009-07-07
- PAGES-MedCLIVAR Workshop: Climate Extremes During Recent Millennia and their Impact on Mediterranean Societies
Athens, Greece // 2008-09-13
- Working Group meeting on Arctic climate during the last two millennia
Boulder, USA // 2008-03-08
- 1st MedCLIVAR workshop: Reconstruction of past Mediterranean climate
Carmona, Seville, Spain // 2006-11-09
- International Symposium: Reconstructing Past Regional Climate Variations in South America over the late Holocene (LOTRED-SA)
Malargüe, Argentina // 2006-10-04
Below is a list of trans-regional synthesis products by the 2k Network. Products of the various regional 2k groups can be found on the relevant group page.
All of the data used for the continental-scale temperature reconstructions are available for download through the NOAA Paleoclimatology website: http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/data-access/paleoclimatology-data/products
Download the guidelines for 2k data collection here.
Regional working groups
The 2k Network is made up of 9 regional working groups. Each regional group collects and processes the best time series and spatial reconstructions of important state variables of the climate system (e.g., surface and 500 hPa geopotential, temperature and precipitation). The reconstructed maps and timeseries will be analyzed in combination with the best ensemble runs of existing ESMs.
The 2k Network of regional Working Groups
> Africa2k (African climate of the last 2 millennia)
> Antarctica2k (Antarctic climate of the last 2 millennia)
> Arctic2k (Arctic climate of the last 2 millennia)
> Asia2k (Asian climate of the last 2 millennia)
> Aus2k (Australasian climate of the last 2 millennia)
> Euro-Med2k (European and Mediterranean climate of the last 2 millennia)
> LOTRED-SA (Long-Term Climate Reconstruction and Dynamics of South America)
> NAmerica2k (North American climate of the last 2 millennia)
> Ocean2k (Marine climate of the last 2 millennia)
If you would like to be involved in one or more of the 2k Regional Working Groups, please contact the working group leaders for that region.