Focus 1 - Themes

Focus 1 is divided into two themes with the questions raised under each theme being addressed by a number of Working Groups.

Primary Climate Forcings

Primary climate forcings are those that are externally imposed on the climate system, and do not result from natural feedback processes in the Earth System. Orbital solar insolation, irradiance intensity and volcanic aerosols are therefore classified as primary forcings. ... more

Working groups

This theme does not yet have a formal WG. To unify the international research effort, Focus 1 will organize a number of activities, with initial emphasis on:

- Development of high-resolution records of solar and volcanic activity and ensuring availability of the datasets to modelers

- Understanding cosmogenic isotopes and associated modeling of the different mechanisms that affect their concentration in ice and marine sediments as a measure of solar activity.

- Development of key primary forcing curves that can be used by all modeling groups. 

Secondary Climate Forcings

Secondary natural climate forcings include those induced by mineral dust, greenhouse gases, land cover, sea ice, continental ice and sea level. They also impact the radiative balance of the atmosphere but are classified as “secondary” because their level is controlled by feedbacks in the Earth System, and hence depends directly on the climate state itself. Some forcings can be both primary and secondary, such as greenhouse gases, land cover, and aerosols. ... more

Working groups

> Global Palaeofire Working Group (GPWG)

> PALSEA2 (Paleo-Constraints on Sea-Level Change)