Focus 1 - Climate Forcings

Focus1 structure
Structure of Focus 1, showing the Themes (blue boxes) and Working Groups (grey text), and overlap with external programs (white boxes).

This focus fosters activities that aim to produce improved, extended, and consistent time series of climate forcing parameters, both natural and anthropogenic, including solar insolation and irradiance intensity, volcanic activity, land cover, sea ice, and greenhouse gas and aerosol concentrations. Furthermore, Focus 1 aims to quantitatively understand the causes and impacts of variations in climate forcings.

Overarching Questions

How did the main climate forcing factors vary in the past?

How sensitive was (and is) the climate system to these forcings?

What caused the natural greenhouse gas and aerosol variations?

In what precise sequence did changes in forcings, surface climate, and ecological systems occur?


Focus 1 is divided into two themes: Primary and Secondary. The questions raised under each theme are addressed by a number of Working Groups.

Working Groups

> C-PEAT (Carbon in Peat on EArth through Time)

> DICE (Dust Impact on Climate and Environment)

> Global Palaeofire Working Group (GPWG)

> PALSEA2 (Paleo-Constraints on Sea-Level Rise)

> Solar Forcing 

> Sea Ice Proxies